Paranjape, V. V., Garcia-Pereira, F. L., Menciotti, G. et al. 2023. Evaluation of electrical cardiometry for measuring cardiac output and derived hemodynamic variables in comparison with lithium dilution in anesthetized dogs. Animals 13(14), 2362.

Numerous cardiac output (CO) technologies were developed to replace the ‘gold standard’ pulmonary artery thermodilution due to its invasiveness and the risks associated with it. Minimally invasive lithium dilution (LiD) shows excellent agreement with thermodilution and can be used as a reference standard in animals. This study evaluated CO via noninvasive electrical cardiometry (EC) and acquired hemodynamic variables against CO measured using LiD in six healthy, anesthetized dogs administered different treatments (dobutamine, esmolol, phenylephrine, and high-dose isoflurane) impacting CO values. These treatments were chosen to cause drastic variations in CO, so that fair comparisons between EC and LiD across a wide range of CO values (low, intermediate, and high) could be made. Statistical analysis included linear regression, Bland–Altman plots, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc), and polar plots. Values of p < 0.05 represented significance. Good agreement was observed between EC and LiD, but consistent underestimation was noted when the CO values were high. The good trending ability, ρc of 0.88, and low percentage error of ±31% signified EC’s favorable performance. Other EC-acquired variables successfully tracked changes in CO measured using LiD. EC may be a pivotal hemodynamic tool for continuously monitoring circulatory changes, as well as guiding and treating cardiovascular anesthetic complications in clinical settings.

Animal Type