Most of the meat, poultry, dairy, and eggs sold in American grocery stores and restaurants come from animals raised under intensive conditions on “factory farms.” Animals on these operations suffer pain and distress as a result of extreme confinement, bodily mutilations without pain relief, and denial of the opportunity to behave normally.
Consumers have the power to change this through the food choices we make every day. Farmers will produce, and retailers will sell, what shoppers demand. Seemingly small changes—like switching brands in favor of a more humanely raised product or consuming fewer animal-based foods—can make a big difference in the lives of farm animals.
Unfortunately, the knowledge required to navigate the complicated world of food labeling claims is not always easy to obtain. If consumers are not provided with clear information on the significance of animal-raising claims such as “free range” and “humanely raised,” they can be easily misled into purchasing a product that is not consistent with their personal values.
AWI is committed to helping compassionate consumers locate food from animals raised to high-welfare standards, as well as to revealing inaccurate and misleading labeling schemes.
Many food labels are confusing and some are downright deceptive. There are several options for finding higher-welfare animal products. The best way for consumers to learn how the animals connected with a particular food item are treated is to visit the farm in question. Unfortunately, this is not a realistic option for most people. However, most people live in close proximity to a farmers markets where you can meet farmers and learn about their animal-raising practices.
The next best approach is to choose animal-derived food products that are certified by an independent third party as having come from animals raised on higher-welfare, pasture-based farms. If you cannot find higher-welfare products in a store near you, please speak up and tell your local store that you would like to see these products on its shelves.
Lastly, the Cornucopia Institute’s organic beef, poultry, egg, and dairy scorecards can help you find products from higher-welfare farms. The scorecards include links to the farms’ websites to locate where to buy their products.
This third-party certification program has the highest standards for animal welfare and is the only multi-species welfare food certification program that requires that all animals be raised outdoors on pasture or range. It was created and formerly administered by the Animal Welfare Institute. It is now administered by the nonprofit A Greener World, which also offers a “grassfed” certification that features the same high animal welfare standards.
Global Animal Partnership (Steps 4, 5, 5+)
This is a rating program as opposed to a certification program with one set of standards. Producers are rated on a six-tier scale, from Step 1 to Step 5+. Only Steps 4, 5, and 5+ require pasture access for animals. Standards for Steps 1 through 3 are not sufficiently strong to be considered high welfare for farm animals. If you purchase animal products at Whole Foods Markets, look for those labeled as Global Animal Partnership (GAP) Step 4, 5, or 5+.
Next Best Choices:
Administered by the American Grassfed Association, this program requires continuous access to pasture and a diet of 100 percent forage (no grain). Feedlots are prohibited. However, pain relief is not required for physical alterations, and there are no standards for the handling of animals during transport or at slaughter.
This animal welfare certification program is administered by the nonprofit Humane Farm Animal Care. Although access to the outdoors is not required for meat birds, egg-laying hens, or pigs, indoor environmental enrichment must be provided for these animals. Cattle may be taken off pasture for feeding in a yard or lot. The program offers a “pasture raised” option for eggs that meets AWI standards.
In addition to animal welfare, this certification covers treatment of workers and the environment. Unfortunately, access to the outdoors is not required for all animals. Compliance with 100 percent of the standards is also not required.
Global Animal Partnership (Steps 2 & 3)
As mentioned above, this is a rating program as opposed to a certification program with one set of standards. While not considered high welfare, the standards under Steps 2 & 3 do exceed conventional animal-raising practices. Enrichments are required for poultry and pigs at Step 2, and very limited access to the outdoors and minimal vegetation is provided at Step 3.
A third-party certification program administered by Organic Plus Trust, Inc. To qualify for certification, producers must meet all standards for livestock health and living conditions required under National Organic Program regulations and receive USDA organic certification. Standards also require providing a longer grazing period, and a diet that consists of forage only and prohibits grains and grain-derived feeds.
Beware of These Labels:
The label is meaningless when used on chicken or turkey products since, in the United States, birds raised for meat are not typically housed in cages.
CARE Certified is a program developed by Where Food Comes From, Inc. that focuses on three core areas: animal husbandry, environmental stewardship, and people and community. Currently, standards only exist for cattle, but some producers market their products under the certification despite the lack of developed standards. The animal husbandry standards used by CARE Certified are based upon industry guidelines and do not demonstrate a meaningful improvement in animal care.
FACTA Animal Welfare Humane Certified
Farm Animal Care Training & Auditing (FACTA) is an auditing company that offers training, verification, and certification services to producers. FACTA offers two categories of audits: 1) auditing to any standard a producer wishes to comply, including industry-based guidelines, or 2) auditing to a standard developed by FACTA itself, which are also based on minimum industry animal care standards. Because both options are designed for companies that wish to follow minimum industry standards, extreme confinement and lack of outdoor access is permissible.
This label claim merely means that the product has no artificial ingredients and was minimally processed. The claim has no relevance whatsoever to how the animals were raised.
This claim has some relevance in terms of animal welfare for beef, bison, and lamb products. However, hormones are already prohibited by federal regulation for use in poultry, pork, and veal products. Use of a “no hormones” claim on the label of these latter products is therefore superfluous and does not distinguish them as higher welfare or healthier than any competing poultry, pork, or veal product.
USDA PROCESS VERIFIED
The USDA conducts audits to verify that the company is following its own standards in raising animals. Hence, the meaning of a term such as “humanely raised” can vary widely among producers and all can receive USDA Process Verified approval for the claim. Even products from factory-farmed animals can carry the USDA PVP seal.
To read more about how you can make more informed eating choices, check out our Food Label Guide for detailed explanations on claims used on food packaging.