Lenox, R. H., Kant, G. J., Sessions, G. R. et al. 1980. Specific hormonal and neurochemical responses to different stressors. Neuroendocrinology 30(5), 300-308.

The neuroendocrine and neurochemical responses of rats to 5 min of cold exposure versus 5 min of forced immobilization were determined and compared. We found that plasma hormones and brain neurochemical systems responded differently to the two different stressors. Plasma prolactin levels were elevated over 10-fold in the immolilized group, while rising only 2-fold in the cold stress group. Levels of corticosterone were significantly increased and growth hormone levels were decreased in both stressed groups as compared to controls. Levels of cyclic GMP were markedly elevated in 11 brain regions following cold exposure. Surprisingly, no elevation of cyclic GMP was found after forced immobilization. Cyclic AMP, norepinephrine, and dopamine levels throughout the 17 regions of brain examined showed no significant response to 5 min of either stressor. Lesions of the ventral medial tegmental area did not affect the cyclic GMP or neuroendocrine responses to cold stress. Lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus did not affect the cyclic GMP response but significantly reduced growth hormone levels in the cold-stressed rats.

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