Kennedy, L. H., Nowland, M. H., Nemzek-Hamlin, J. A. 2019. Surgical treatment of spontaneous endometriosis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): 11 cases (2007–2011). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 254(12), 1454-1458.

OBJECTIVE To determine long-term outcome for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with endometriosis that underwent surgical treatment and identify factors potentially associated with long-term outcome. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 11 female rhesus macaques. PROCEDURES Medical records of female rhesus macaques in which endometriosis was diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 and that underwent abdominal exploratory surgery were reviewed. RESULTS In 5 macaques, the only clinical abnormality was a caudal abdominal mass identified during a routine physical examination, and in 6 macaques, overt clinical signs of endometriosis, including anorexia, dysmenorrhea, and lethargy during menses, were reported. Five macaques had histologically confirmed complete ovarian removal, and another 5 had incomplete ovarian removal (ovarian tissue was not examined histologically in 1 macaque). Nine animals survived at least 12 months after surgery, and 6 survived at least 60 months after surgery. Macaques that did not have overt clinical signs were significantly more likely to survive at least 60 months after surgery. However, extent of ovarian removal was not significantly associated with survival 12 or 60 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, in select situations, surgery (ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy) may be curative in macaques with endometriosis and may result in long-term survival. Further, findings suggested that monitoring until clinical signs appear before performing surgery is not warranted in adult female macaques suspected to have endometriosis that only have a caudal abdominal mass and no other overt clinical signs.

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