Gilberto, D., Michener, M., Smith, B. et al. 2022. Chronic collection of cerebrospinal fluid from rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with cisterna magna ports: Update on refinements. Comparative Medicine 72(1), 45-49.

More than 20 y ago, we developed an animal model for chronic and continuous collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from conscious rhesus macaques. Since our previous publication in 2003, we have successfully implanted 168 rhesus macaques using this approach. Our experience enables us to provide up-to-date information regarding the model, including refinements to our implant design, reductions in maintenance, and new procedures for dealing with contamination. The results of our experiences have reduced the number of surgeries required and helped to increase the longevity of the implant, with some functioning for more than 18 y. Building on our success in rhesus macaques, we attempted to develop similar animal models in the African green monkeys and dogs but have been unable to develop reliable chronic models for CSF collection in these species.