Flores Dueñas, C. A., Cordero Yañez, I. A., González, R. M. et al. 2023. Translational echocardiography: The dog as a clinical research model of cardiac dysfunction. Applied Sciences 13(7), 4437.

Heart disease is a major contributor to mortality and disability on a global scale. Hence, there is a need for research to improve non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Diseases in dogs with characteristics very similar to those of human pathologies hold promise as a source of data for evaluating and developing echocardiographic techniques and devices. Methods: We conducted a structured literature search from June 2022 to January 2023 to evaluate the relevance of dogs as a translational model for echocardiographic clinical research. We searched various academic databases, including PubMed Central (PMC), Core, DIGITAL.CSIC, DOAB, DOAJ, EBSCO host, Elsevier B.V, Redib, Scopus, and Web of Science, available through the Academic Information System of the Autonomous University of Baja California. Results: Out of the 243 articles initially screened, we identified 119 relevant articles that met our inclusion criteria for further analysis. This review is an introduction to the canine model by analyzing the cardiovascular anatomical similarities between the two species, the pathophysiological overlaps in some diseases, the parallels in echocardiographic techniques in dogs compared to humans, and the suitability of dogs with a naturally occurring cardiac disease as a model for translational clinical research compared to other animal species. Conclusions: This review emphasizes the importance of canine patients as an ideal cardiac disease symmetrical clinical model since they share common heart diseases with humans. Furthermore, dogs have a shorter lifespan, leading to the relatively rapid evolution of these diseases, which makes studying these pathologies and developing echocardiographic techniques more feasible. The results strongly indicate the need for interdisciplinary collaboration and translational medical research to create innovative echocardiographic technologies and improve the connection between veterinary and human cardiac imaging research.

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