Ehrlich, O., Karamalakis, A., Krylov, A. J. et al. 2019. Clove oil and AQUI-S efficacy for zebrafish embryo, larva, and adult anesthesia. Zebrafish 16(5), 451-459.
Since the use of the zebrafish Danio rerio genetic model organism within the scientific research community continues to grow rapidly, continued procedural refinement to support high-quality, reproducible research and improve animal welfare remains an important focus. As such, anesthesia remains one of the most frequent procedures conducted. Here, we compared the effectiveness of clove oil (active ingredient eugenol) and AQUI-S (active ingredient iso-eugenol) with the currently most commonly used tricaine/MS-222 (ethyl 3-aminobenzoate methanesulfonate) and benzocaine anesthesia. We focused on embryos (1 day postfertilization), larvae (5 days postfertilization), and adults (9–11 months) and for the first time used exposure times that are the most relevant in research settings by using zebrafish as a genetic model system. For each age, tricaine and benzocaine achieved the most reproducible, robust anesthesia with the quickest induction and recovery. For some experimental procedures, specific clove oil concentrations in embryos and larvae may represent suitable alternatives. Although different aquatic species at specific ages respond differentially to these agents, the systematic study of comparable effective dosages for procedures most commonly employed represent an important step toward refinement.