Visalberghi, E., Anderson, J. R. 1993. Reasons and risks associated with manipulating captive primates' social environments. Animal Welfare 2(1), 3-15 .

Review of the implications of experimental or management-related manipulations of the social environment of captive primates for the animals' welfare. Relatively little empirical work has been done on the effects of manipulation of the social environment. The data currently available indicate that primates kept in solitary confinement are likely to develop a variety of behavioural and physiological disturbances reflecting reduced well- being, whereas most compatibly socially housed primates appear better adapted. There is always some risk associated with manipulating the social environment for experimental or husbandry reasons, but the risk of deleterious consequences can be reduced by a good knowledge of the animals' normal repertoire and careful monitoring of how the animals adjust to the new conditions. Attending to the social environment of captive primates is fundamental to their welfare.