Smith, S. A. 2023. Fish welfare in public aquariums and zoological collections. Animals 13(16), 2548.

A wide variety of fish species have been displayed in public aquariums and zoological collections for over 150 years. Though the issue of pain perception in fish is still being debated, there is no disagreement that negative impacts on their welfare can significantly affect their health and wellbeing. A general description of the basic biological requirements for maintaining fish in captive environments is presented, but species-specific information and guidelines should be developed for the multitude of species being maintained. A combination of behavioral, performance, and physiological indicators can be used to assess the well-being of these animals. Ultimately, the goal for optimizing the welfare of fish should be to provide the best possible environment, husbandry, and social interactions to promote natural species-specific behaviors of the fish in captivity.