Serrano, C., Antonio, J. 2022. Ultrasound guided surgery as a refinement tool in oncology research. Animals 12(23), 3445.

Refinement is one of the ethical pillars of the use of animals in research. Ultrasonography is currently used in human medicine as a surgical tool for guided biopsies and this idea can be applied to preclinical research thanks to the development of specific instruments. This will eliminate the necessity of a surgical opening for implanting cells in specific organs or taking samples from tissues. The approach for the injection will depend on the target but most of the case is going to be lateral, with the probe in a ventral position and the needle going into from the lateral. This is the situation for the thyroid gland, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, uterus, and testicles. Other approaches, such as the dorsal, can be used in the spleen or kidney. The maximum injected volume will depend on the size of the structure. For biopsies, the technical protocol is similar to the injection knowing that in big organs such as the liver, spleen, or kidney we can take several samples moving slightly the needle inside the structure. In all cases, animals must be anesthetized and minimum pain management is required after the intervention.

Animal Type