Schnell, C. R., Gerber, P. 1997. Training and remote monitoring of cardiovascular parameters in non-human primates. Primate Report 49, 61-70.

The use of "pre-invasive" implantable radio telemetry has revolutionized the collection of physiological data under stress-free conditions. It is now possible to measure accurately 'normal' baseline data of haemodynamic and electrical parameters in conscious and unrestrained monkeys. The use of this new technology enabled us to measure the pronounced acute and chronic effects on cardiovascular parameters of singly or repeated oral administration procedures in trained marmosets. Advantages, as well as limitations, of alternative "low-stress" ways of dosing will be discussed. It is frequently suggested that training is not "cost-effective". Data from our own studies have demonstrated unequivocally the impact of housing/husbandry practices on physiological parameters and pharmacological outcome. We could prove that marmosets can be trained to participate willingly in cage restraint and to urine sampling by the use of appropriate (banana milk-shake) rewards. Under this prospect, they showed no behavioral and cardiovascular signs of distress. Since the purpose of physiological recording should be to obtain a record that is an exact fascimile or analog of the events under investigation, stress induced by restraint and handling, even when these are of minor nature and performed by skilled staff, is one of the major problems encountered in biomedical investigations [p. 68].The training of non-human primates to handling and experimental procedure will reduce the variance and increase the significant level of observed changes, allows the measurement of normal physiological parameters and finally reduces the number of animals used in an experiment. [p. 69].