Olczak, K., Penar, W., Nowicki, J. et al. 2023. The role of sound in livestock farming—Selected aspects. Animals 13(14), 2307.

To ensure the optimal living conditions of farm animals, it is essential to understand how their senses work and the way in which they perceive their environment. Most animals have a different hearing range compared to humans; thus, some aversive sounds may go unnoticed by caretakers. The auditory pathways may act through the nervous system on the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and immune systems. Therefore, noise may lead to behavioral activation (arousal), pain, and sleep disorders. Sounds on farms may be produced by machines, humans, or animals themselves. It is worth noting that vocalization may be very informative to the breeder as it is an expression of an emotional state. This information can be highly beneficial in maintaining a high level of livestock welfare. Moreover, understanding learning theory, conditioning, and the potential benefits of certain sounds can guide the deliberate use of techniques in farm management to reduce the aversiveness of certain events.