Mandour, A. S., Farag, A., Helal, M. A. Y. et al. 2023. Non-invasive assessment of the intraventricular pressure using novel color M-mode echocardiography in animal studies: Current status and future perspectives in veterinary medicine. Animals 13(15), 2452.

The assessment of diastolic function has received great interest in order to comprehend its crucial role in the pathophysiology of heart failure and for the early identification of cardiac events. Silent changes in the intraventricular flow (IVF) dynamics occur before the deterioration of the cardiac wall, although they cannot be detected using conventional echocardiography. Collective information on left ventricular (LV) pressures throughout the cardiac cycle has great value when dealing with patients with altered hemodynamics. Accurate pressure measurement inside the ventricle can be obtained by invasive methods to determine the LV diastolic pressures, which reflect the myocardial relaxation and compliance. However, catheterization is only feasible in the laboratory setting and is not suitable for clinical use due to its disadvantages. In contrast, echocardiography is simple, safe, and accessible. Color M-mode echocardiography (CMME) is an advanced cardiac evaluation technique that can measure the intraventricular pressure differences (IVPDs) and intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) based on the Doppler shift of the IVF. Recently, the assessment of IVPD and IVPG has gained growing interest in the cardiovascular literature in both animal and human studies as a non-invasive method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunctions, especially diastolic ones. The usability of IVPD and IVPG has been reported in various surgically induced heart failure or pharmacologically altered cardiac functions in rats, dogs, cats, and goats. This report aims to give an overview of the current studies of CMME-derived IVPD and IVPG in animal studies and its feasibility for clinical application in veterinary practice and to provide the prospects of the technique’s ability to improve our understanding.

Animal Type