Kim, S., Kim, N., Kim, H. et al. 2023. Various endoscopic approaches for removal of proventricular foreign bodies in parrots—Three case reports. Animals 13(24), 3839.

Although the use of incision-free endoscopy for foreign body (FB) removal in dogs and cats has been extensively documented, its application in birds remains limited. Thus, we present the endoscopic removal of gastrointestinal (GI) FBs from psittacine birds, employing different patient positioning and anesthesia methods. Two blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) and a Triton cockatoo (Cacatua galerita triton) were examined. X-ray imaging revealed FBs situated in the proventriculus in each case. The FBs, all identified as feeding tubes, were safely removed using grasping forceps during the endoscopic procedure, and no severe complications occurred. Based on the outcomes of each operation, the most suitable patient position may be ventral recumbency rather than dorsal recumbency, with the use of a mask or endotracheal intubation, depending on the anticipated operation time. However, a larger number of cases would be necessary to confirm the optimal patient positioning and anesthesia method.

Animal Type