Khattak, R., Liu, Z., Teng, L. 2019. Development and implementation of baseline welfare assessment protocol for captive breeding of wild ungulate—Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis, Lydekker 1913). Animals 9(12), 1102.

To ensure that captive breeding and other associated programs are more robust and sustainable, it is of utmost importance to ensure optimum welfare. Although it is well known that standard welfare is crucial for successful captive breeding, there is still a lack of welfare assessment protocols for wild species. The current study aimed to develop a leading baseline welfare assessment protocol for assessing welfare in captive Punjab urial. This protocol is based on the welfare protocol for domestic sheep from the Welfare Quality® project, coupled with all the information obtained from the published literature on the species’ biology and ecology. This protocol consists of 4 principles, 12 criteria, and 31 animal- and resource-based indicators. The protocol was tested and applied to three different herds of Punjab urial at two different facilities. Initial results showed that some areas need to be improved for better captive breeding and management.