Hampton, C. E., Riebold, T. W., Mandsager, R. E. 2019. Recovery characteristics of dogs following anesthesia induced with tiletamine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, or propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 254(12), 1421-1426.
OBJECTIVE To compare characteristics of recovery from isoflurane anesthesia in healthy nonpremedicated dogs after anesthetic induction by IV administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with those observed after induction by IV administration of alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, or propofol. DESIGN Prospective, randomized crossover study. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hounds. PROCEDURES Each dog underwent the 4 treatments in random order with a ≥ 7-day washout period between anesthetic episodes. Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of the assigned induction drug or combination (each to effect in 25% increments of calculated dose) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 60 minutes. Cardiorespiratory variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO) were measured just before isoflurane administration was discontinued. Dogs were observed and video recorded during recovery. Recovery characteristics were retrospectively scored from recordings by 3 raters. Interrater and intrarater reliability of scoring was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient calculation. Linear and mixed ANOVAs were used to compare extubation times, recovery scores, and body temperature among treatments. RESULTS Most cardiorespiratory variables, body temperature, ETISO, and time to extubation did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and other induction treatments. Recovery scores were lower (indicating better recovery characteristics) with propofol or alfaxalone than with tiletamine-zolazepam but did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and ketamine-diazepam treatments. Anesthetic episode number and ETISO had no effect on extubation time or recovery score. Intrarater and interrater correlations for recovery scores were excellent. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Recovery of healthy dogs from anesthesia with isoflurane after induction with tiletamine-zolazepam was uncomplicated and had characteristics comparable to those observed following induction with ketamine-diazepam. However, recovery characteristics were improved when anesthesia was induced with propofol or alfaxalone.