Hall, C. S., Ballachey, E. L. 1932. A study of the rat's behavior in a field: A contribution to method in comparative psychology. University of California Publications in Psychology 6, 1-12.
THE OPEN-FIELD (OF) TEST, originally developed by Hall (Hall & Ballachey, 1932), is one of the most widely used methods in the study of emotionality in rodents. The test is conducted in an enclosed open area in which the animal is confronted with a strange and potentially threatening situation.