Haertel, A. J., Schultz, M. A., Colgin, L. M. et al. 2021. Predictors of subcutaneous injection site reactions to sustained-release buprenorphine in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). JAALAS 60(3), 329-336.

Subcutaneous injection site reactions to sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride (Buprenorphine SR) in macaques have been reported in only a single case report. In the current study, we evaluated the incidence rate and predictors of buprenorphine SR reactions in the subcutaneous tissue of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) based on retrospective review of macaque buprenorphine SR injection records. Potentially predictive variables were identified with logistic regression modeling and were evaluated using model selection based on Akaike information criterion. Record review revealed sub- cutaneous tissue reactions occurred in 52 (3%) of 1559 injections and were noted between 4 and 311 d after injection. Model selection showed that body weight and MHC allele Mamu-B*29 were the best predictors of subcutaneous reactions. Based on these results, we recommend consideration of potential risk factors prior to the administration of buprenorphine SR to a rhesus macaque. In addition, the authors advise that using the highest concentration of buprenorphine SR available may reduce injection site reaction rates due to the injection of less copolymer.

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