Ekesbo, I. 2011. Sheep. In: Farm Animal Behavior: Characteristics for Assessment of Health and Welfare, 1st edition. Fraser, A. F. , Broom, D. M. (ed). CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 82-92.
Each chapter follows a consistent pattern describing the behavioral characteristics of the species featured. Reference is made to the natural state before domestication, leading us through the various changes to the present, demonstrating along the way recognized behavioral needs of animals subject to modern management systems. Innate, learned, and social behaviors, activity patterns, senses, behavior in the young animal, vision and hearing, mating, pregnancy, birthing, and mothering are chronicled for each animal species within natural and artificial settings. A wide range of behavioural information is supplemented with physiological data of interest for clinical examinations and characterizing the healthy animal. The most common abnormal behaviours and stereotypies are also described, as well as examples of injuries and diseases caused by housing or management systems that do not meet health and welfare needs. Examples of disorders caused by breeding for high production are also given. A short description of useful restraint and handling techniques for each species is provided, and the importance of the stockman's behaviour is discussed.