Chum, H., Felt, S., Garner, J. et al. 2013. Biology, behavior, and environmental enrichment for the captive African clawed frog (Xenopus spp). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143(2-4), 150-156.
Xenopus are a hardy, long-lived, aquatic amphibian species which readily adapt to a captive environment. This characteristic makes Xenopus ideal for the laboratory, where they are used extensively in basic and biomedical research. Though husbandry practices for Xenopus have not been standardized, there is burgeoning evidence that environmental enrichment can limit fighting, cannibalism, and can optimize the general health, fecundity, and the welfare of captive Xenopus. Here we review the habitat, sensory biology, and the relevant features of normal Xenopus behavior and with those unique features in mind, propose strategies for effective environmental enrichment.