Bowling, P. A., Bencivenga, M. A., Leyva, M. E. et al. 2021. Effects of a heated anesthesia breathing circuit on body temperature in anesthetized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). JAALAS 60(6), 675-680.
This study evaluated the effects of using a heated anesthesia breathing circuit in addition to forced-air warming on body temperature in anesthetized rhesus macaques as compared with forced-air warming alone. Hypothermia is a common perianesthetic and intraoperative complication that can increase the risk of negative outcomes. Body heat is lost through 4 mechanisms during anesthesia: radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation. Typical warming methods such as forced-air warming devices, conductive heating pads, and heated surgical tables only influence radiative and conductive mechanisms of heat loss. A commercially available heated breathing circuit that delivers gas warmed to 104 °F can easily be integrated into an anesthesia machine. We hypothesized that heating the inspired anesthetic gas to address the evaporative mechanism of heat loss would result in higher body temperature during anesthesia in rhesus macaques. Body temperatures were measured at 5-min intervals in a group of 10 adult male rhesus macaques during 2 anesthetic events: one with a heated anesthesia breathing circuit in addition to forced-air warming, and one with forced-air warming alone. The addition of a heated breathing circuit had a significant positive effect on perianesthetic body temperature, with a faster return to baseline temperature, earlier nadir of initial drop in body temperature, and higher body temperatures during a 2-h anesthetic procedure. Use of a heated anesthesia breathing circuit should be considered as a significant refinement to thermal support during macaque anesthesia, especially for procedures lasting longer than one hour.