Martínez Silvestre, A. 2014. How to assess stress in reptiles. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 23(3), 240-243.

Stress, as an adaptive response of any animal to a stimulus that presents a threat to homeostasis, can occur in reptiles. Yet, many veterinarians fail to recognize the signs of stress in reptiles. In this article, evaluation of reptile stress has been discussed with a focus on the analysis of behavioral changes, neuroendocrine correlation, and biochemical and physiologic effects in reptiles. If stress can be assessed and treated properly in captive reptiles, their health and well-being can be optimized.