Kay, W. R., Mawson, P. R. 2021. An efficient method for the euthanasia of cane toads (Rhinella marina) under northern Australian field conditions. Animals 11(8), 2239.

The euthanasia of cane toads under field conditions presents a number of logistical and animal welfare challenges. One recommended method of control involves the use of carbon dioxide in plastic bags. This paper describes the minimum amount of time (4 h) required to efficiently euthanase toads with a carbon dioxide concentration of 4.96% under field conditions experienced in northern Australia. Discussion is also provided on the issues of safe disposal of biological and plastic waste associated with the application of this method.

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