Kastelic, M., Gregurić Gračner, G., Tomažič, I. et al. 2023. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in different matrices in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) at the zoo. Animals 13(15), 2491.

The usefulness of blood collection using venipuncture versus kissing bugs or medicinal leeches and the collection of saliva, faeces, hair, urine, and tears for measuring “immunoreactive” C (iC) concentration in Alpine ibexes was verified using commercial enzyme immunoassays. The mean value of serum C was highest in serum collected using venipuncture and lowest in serums collected using kissing bugs. Statistically significant differences were observed between venipuncture and kissing bugs and between leeches and kissing bugs. However, no statistically significant difference was found in C concentrations between samples collected with venipuncture and those collected with leeches. The highest mean value of C concentration was measured in serum (all three methods), followed by that in hair and faeces, and the lowest mean value was found in saliva. Statistically significant differences were found between saliva and faeces samples and between saliva and hair samples. The difference between the concentrations for faeces and hair was not statistically significant. A significant difference in C concentration between males and females was found in saliva. A significant difference in C concentration among different ages was measured in serum obtained using venipuncture in all three groups and in faeces between the groups older than ten years and younger than 10 months. Highly significant differences in C concentrations were also found between hair sampled in summer and hair sampled in autumn. Collecting tear and urine samples is a laborious procedure and is therefore less acceptable for C determination. Due to the small number of samples, statistical values are not given for these two matrices.

Animal Type