Jang, D.-H., Kwon, K.-S., Kim, J.-K. et al. 2020. Dog identification method based on muzzle pattern image. Applied Sciences 10(24), 8994.

Currently, invasive and external radio frequency identification (RFID) devices and pet tags are widely used for dog identification. However, social problems such as abandoning and losing dogs are constantly increasing. A more effective alternative to the existing identification method is required and the biometrics can be the alternative. This paper proposes an effective dog muzzle recognition method to identify individual dogs. The proposed method consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, matching, and postprocessing. For preprocessing, proposed resize and histogram equalization are used. For feature extraction algorithm, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), Binary Robust Invariant Scaling Keypoints (BRISK) and Oriented FAST, and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) are applied and compared. For matching, Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) is used for SIFT and SURF, and hamming distance are used for BRISK and ORB. For postprocessing, two techniques to reduce incorrect matches are proposed. The proposed method was evaluated with 55 dog muzzle pattern images acquired from 11 dogs and 990 images augmented by the image deformation (i.e., angle, illumination, noise, affine transform). The best Equal Error Rate (EER) of the proposed method was 0.35%, and ORB was the most appropriate for the dog muzzle pattern recognition.

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