Fisher, K., Gebhardt-Heinrich, S. G., Steiger, A. 2007. Behaviour of golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) kept in four different cage sizes. Animal Welfare 16(1), 53-62.

Hamsters spent most of their active time inside the running-wheel (58% in 1,800 cm2, 74% in 2,500 cm2, 63% in 5,000 cm2 and 70% in 10,000 cm2). Although hamsters displayed wire-gnawing in all cage sizes, hamsters in small cages performed wire-gnawing more often and for longer periods. In small cages, more hamsters made use of the roof of their shelter which could indicate that additional space was increasing welfare.