Costa, G. L., Spadola, F., Di Pietro, S. et al. 2023. Tramadol vs. Lidocaine administered intraperitoneally and in incisional lines for the intraoperative and postoperative pain management of romifidine-telazol-anesthetized swine undergoing umbilical hernia repair. Animals 13(18), 2905.

The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of tramadol and lidocaine for local anesthesia during umbilical hernia repair in swine. The study was performed on 66 large white crossbred swine. The swine received a mixture of tiletamine/zolazepam at 5 mg/kg and romifidine at 80 µg/kg, administered intramuscularly. Then, they were divided into three groups (n = 22) that received different treatments with lidocaine at 4 mg/kg and tramadol at 4 mg/kg. The LL group received lidocaine both by infiltration of the surgical planes and intraperitoneally. The LT group received lidocaine by infiltration of the surgical planes and tramadol intraperitoneally. The TT group received tramadol both by infiltration of the surgical planes and intraperitoneally. In all groups, the infiltration of the surgical planes into the umbilical region involved both the skin and muscle planes. Heart rate, noninvasive arterial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were recorded during surgery. The response to the surgical stimulus was evaluated using a cumulative pain scale (the cut-off point for rescue analgesia was set to 10). Postoperative pain was assessed using the UNESP-Botucatu pig composite acute pain scale (the cut-off point was set to 4). The trend of physiological variables was adequate for patients under anesthesia. No subject required intraoperative and postoperative rescue analgesia. Tramadol could therefore be used for pain management in livestock.

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