Anti-whistleblower (“Ag-Gag”) Legislation

Anti-whistleblower Legislation - Photo by Farm Sanctuary

Undercover investigations by animal advocates are a critical tool in exposing the cruel realities of factory farming. However, instead of passing laws to ensure farm animals are protected from abuse and neglect on factory farms, industrial agriculture continues to introduce anti-whistleblower legislation (often referred to as “ag-gag” bills) to prevent the investigation and exposure of cruel conditions endured by animals at these facilities.

Ten states have passed 11 anti-whistleblower laws:

Anti-Whistleblower (“Ag-Gag”) Laws
State Year Citation Status Details
Alabama 2002 Ala. Code 1975 § 13A-11-150 - 158 Active Illegal to “obtain access” to a facility “by false pretenses.” Illegal to obtain or possess records or data by deception or theft.
Arkansas 2017 Ark. Code § 16-118-113 Current challenge in court, filed 2019. Illegal to access non-public/commercial property and record images or sound that damage the owner.
Idaho 2014 Idaho §18-7042 Unconstitutional; struck down in 2015. Illegal to enter a facility or obtain employment there under misrepresentation. Illegal to obtain records or record audio or video without express consent.
Iowa 2012 Iowa Code § 717A.3A Unconstitutional; struck down in 2019. Illegal to “obtain access” to a facility “by false pretenses.” Illegal to obtain employment based on false representations while intending to commit an act not authorized by the employer.
Iowa 2019 Iowa Code § 717A.3B Active Illegal to enter a facility or gain employment under “false pretenses” while intending to harm the owner or its operations. Establishes “agricultural production facility trespass.”
Kansas 1990 K.S.A. 47-1825 – 1830 Current challenge in court, files December 2018. Illegal to enter a facility without consent of owner and with intent to damage the enterprise of the facility “to take pictures by photograph, video camera or by any other means.”
Missouri 2012 Missouri §578.013 Active Requires videos or other records of animal abuse or neglect to be turned over to authorities within 24 hours of the recording.
Montana 1991 MCA § 81-30-101- 105 Active Illegal to enter a facility without consent of owner and with intent to damage the enterprise of the facility “to take pictures by photograph, video camera, or any other means with the intent to commit criminal defamation.”
North Carolina 2015 SL 2015-50 Current challenge in court, files February 2016. Illegal to access non-public property and exceed one’s authority, including an employee knowingly placing a camera or recording device on the property.
North Dakota 1991 ND §12.1-21.1-01 - 05 Active Illegal to enter an animal facility and “use or attempt to use a camera, video recorder, or other video or audio recording equipment.”
Utah 2012 Utah Code § 76-6-112 Unconstitutional; struck down in 2017. Illegal to record images or sounds of an “agricultural operation” without the owner’s consent; illegal to gain employment with intent to do so.

There have been attempts in many other states to pass this type of legislation (Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Vermont, and Wyoming). But these attempts have failed—likely because the majority of legislators have come to understand how harmful these bills are, not only to farm animals, but also to the environment, workers, surrounding communities, and free speech.

Animal and consumer advocates have challenged some ag-gag laws in court. In 2015, a federal district court found Idaho’s ag-gag law to be unconstitutional. After the state appealed, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the decision in part, upholding the lower court’s ruling that it is unconstitutional to ban recording at factory farms. Utah’s ag-gag law was found to be unconstitutional in 2017. The Utah Attorney General’s office decided not to appeal the case. A lawsuit filed against the North Carolina ag-gag law was initially dismissed due to lack of standing, but the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals reinstated the lawsuit in 2018 and it is ongoing. Iowa’s original ag-gag law was challenged as unconstitutional in 2017 and was struck down in January 2019. However, a new Iowa ag-gag law was passed soon after. Most recently, animal advocates filed suit to challenge Arkansas’ ag-gag law in June 2019, and the case is ongoing.

Please visit our action eAlert page to see if we need your help to stop an anti-whistleblower bill from becoming law in your state.