AWI Updates Refinement Database

AWI’s Laboratory Animal Advisor, Dr. Joanna Makowska, has updated AWI’s database on the refinement of housing, husbandry, care, and use of animals in research. More than 600 new entries were recently added, bringing the total number of citations to more than 6,000. The database curates published scientific articles, book chapters, and books related to refinement. Among the wide range of topics: social housing, welfare assessment, handling, training, environmental enrichment, analgesia, husbandry, tissue and fluid collection techniques, and abnormal behaviors. Animals covered range from those commonly used in research such as nonhuman primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, mice, and zebrafish to the less common ones such as amphibians, reptiles, chickens, and zebra finches. The database, which will continue to be updated on a quarterly basis, is available at

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