(Last update:
January 31, 2009)

 


 

New Edition:

Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for
Nonhuman Primates  Kept in Research Laboratories:

A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review

Free copies of the book can be requested per e-mail from: viktorawi@yahoo.com
Please include your mailing address.


 

New:

Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes
Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices
 for Caged Nonhuman Primates

Free copies of the book can be requested per e-mail from: viktorawi@yahoo.com
Please include your mailing address.

 


Making Lives Easier for Animals in Research Labs
Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum



AWI's Goals

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Strict enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act - the major federal statute on protection of animals - is a primary goal of the Animal Welfare Institute.

Random source, Class "B" animal dealers are of great concern to AWI because of the suffering many of them inflict on dogs and cats obtained by illegal means. Class "B" dealers are major suppliers of dogs and cats for laboratories.

The Animal Welfare Institute strongly supports the 3 R's:

  • Replacement of experimental animals by alternatives.
  • Refinement of housing, handling and experimental procedures to reduce discomfort, pain, fear, stress and suffering.
  • Reduction of numbers of animals used.

Free Publications

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AWI provides free copies of

  1. Comfortable Quarters for Animals kept in Laboratories, 2002 (114 pages, 103 illustrations),
  2. Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates  Kept in Research Laboratories: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review new edition (2008)
  3. Variables, Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Rodents and Rabbits kept in Research Institutions: Making Life Easier for Animals in Laboratories, 2006 (71 pages, 30 photographs)
  4. Making Live Easier for Animals in Research Labs: Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum, 2007 (190 pages, 65 photographs)
  5. Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes: Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices for Caged Nonhuman Primates 2008 (137 pages, 71 photographs)

on request by libraries, scientific institutions, students and animal care personnel.


AWI Online Documents

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Forum Databases Books Online Articles Bibliographies

Forum

Overview of Published LAREF discussions


Refinement & Enrichment Forum

The purpose of this electronic discussion forum is the exchange of experiences about ways to improve the conditions under which animals in laboratories are housed and handled. The group is intended to serve the international animal care community in its attempt to promote animal welfare and improve scientific methodology by avoiding or eliminating husbandry-related stress situations. The forum is open to animal care personnel, animal technicians, students, attending veterinarians and researchers who have or had first-hand experience in the care of animals kept in laboratories. If you want to join the group please send a message to viktorawi@yahoo.com indicating your:

  • name,
  • professional affiliation,
  • professional experience(s) and
  • professional interest(s).

Databases

Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates (updated 2008)

Database on Refinement of Housing and Handling Conditions and Environmental Enrichment for Animals kept in Laboratories: Rodents, Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Ferrets, Farm Animals, Horses, Birds, Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles (updated 2008)

Practical enrichment options (2008)

Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for All Animals kept in Laboratories (updated 2008): Merger of Primate Enrichment Database and of Animals Refinement Database of Animals kept in Laboratories

Alternative Farming: An annotated database (updated 2008) 

Books Online

Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates  Kept in Research Laboratories: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review new edition (2008)

Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes: Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices for Caged Nonhuman Primates (2008) download


  Safe Pair Housing of Macaques by Jodi Carlson, . One copy free to scientific institutions, veterinarians or architects (2008)

Making Live Easier for Animals in Research Labs: Discussions by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum (2007) download

Variables, Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Rodents and Rabbits kept in Research Institutions: Making Life Easier for Animals in Laboratories (2006)
download

Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (2002) download

Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (1997)

Environmental Enrichment for Caged Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Photographic documentation and literature review (2001) 

French version, version française: Enrichissement de l'environnement pour les macaques rhésus (Macaca mulatta) en cage: Documentation photographique et revue de la littérature (2001)

Japanese version

Alternatives to Pain In Experiments on Animals (1980) by Dallas Pratt

Animals, Nature and Albert Schweitzer (1982) by AC Free

Articles

Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques (1994)

Safe pair formation technique for previously single-caged rhesus macaques (1994)

Traditional handling procedures of laboratory nonhuman primates are an intrinsic source of distress: What can be done? (1994)

Arguments for single-caging of rhesus macaques: Are they justified? (1995)

Comparing cage space requirements for nonhuman primates in the United States and in Europe (1995)

Restraint methods of laboratory nonhuman primates: A critical review (1995)

Social-housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? (1995)

Looking Into a Cage or Mirror? The Human Relationship with Chimpanzees (1996)

Frequently asked questions about safe pair-housing of macaques (1996)

Space requirement stipulations for caged nonhuman primates in the United States: A critical review (1996)

Effective feeding enrichment for nonhuman primates: A brief review (1997)

Lighting conditions for laboratory monkeys: Are they adequate? (1997)

Species-adequate housing and handling conditions for Old World nonhuman primates kept in research institutions (1997)

The Wisconsin gnawing stick (1997)

Training nonhuman primates to cooperate during blood collection: A review (1997)

Refining the traditional housing and handling of laboratory rhesus macaques improves scientific methodology (1997)

A plea for pair-housing of adult macaques (1998)

Refining the blood collection procedure for macaques (1998)

Pair-housing overcomes self-biting behavior in macaques (1999)

Are legal cage space requirements sound? (1999)

The monkey cave: The dark lower-row cage (1999)

Collecting blood from macaques: An often overlooked variable in biomedical research (1999)

Meeting the "social space" requirements of pair-housed primates (2000)

Social enhancement for adult nonhuman primates in research laboratories: A review (2000)

Daily feeding enrichment for laboratory macaques: Inexpensive options (2000)

The lower row monkey cage: An overlooked variable in biomedical research (2000)

Changing the housing standard for monkeys in laboratories (2000)

Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: A neglected variable in biomedical research (2000)

Pair-formation protocol for adult, previously single-caged macaques: Minimizing risks (2000)

Effective feeding enrichment for caged and pen-housed macaques at no cost (2001)

Training pair-housed rhesus males to cooperate during blood collection (2001)

Legal Space Requirement Stipulations for Animals in the Laboratory: Are they Adequate? (2001)

The impossible housing and handling conditions of monkeys in research laboratories (2001)

Self-biting in Caged Macaques: Cause, Effect and Treatment (2001)

The Attending Veterinarian's Contract of Employment: Curse or Blessing for Animals in Research Institutions? (2002)

Artificial Weaning of Old World Monkeys: Benefits and Costs (2002)

Artificial Weaning of Calves: Benefits and Costs (2002)

The Myth of the Aggressive Monkey (2002) 

Legal Loophole for Subminimal Floor Area for Caged Macaques (2003)

Compassion for Laboratory Animals: Impairment or Refinement of Research Methodology? (2003) 

 Working With Rather Than Against Macaques During Blood Collection (2003) 

Looking After Animals Kept in Research Laboratories (2004) 

Emotionality in the animal research laboratory (2004)

Water leakage in rodent cages: A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (2004) 

Flaws in US regulations pertaining to the welfare of primates kept in research institutions (2004)

Environmental enrichment for guinea pigs: A Discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum (2004)  

Working with Pound Dogs in the Research Laboratory: A Discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum (2004)  

Catching animals who have escaped from their primary enclosure: A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum  (2005)

Collecting Blood from Rodents: A Discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (2005) 

Pole-and-collar training of macaques: a discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (2005)

Postsurgical pairing: a discussion by the Refinement & Enrichment Forum (2006)

Do mice benefit from prefabricated dwellings? A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (2006)

Human-animal relationship in the research lab: A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum  (2006) 

Stress and distress: A discussion by the Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (2006)   

Enforced restraint of rodents: A discussion by the Refinement & Enrichment Forum (2007)

Bibliographies

A Bibliography for Members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (updated 2008)   download

Annotated Bibliography on Refinement and Environmental Enrichment for Primates kept in Laboratories (updated 2008)  

Environmental Enrichment for Rodents and Rabbits: An Annotated Bibliography. (2007)  


Guides & Laws online

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Animal Care and Use Committees (1992) Allen T and Clingerman K. Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)

Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures (1989) Home Office

Appendix A of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes (ETS No. 123) enacted June 15, 2007. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France

Final Rule: Animal Welfare; Standards; 9 CFR (1991) Federal Register, Vol. 55: 6426-6505

Final Report on Environmental Enhancement to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates (1999) U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal Health Inspection Service

Draft Policy on Environmental Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates (1999) Federal Register, Vol. 64: 38145-38150

Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals (1993) Volume 1, 2nd Edition. Canadian Council on Animal Care

Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals (1984) Volume 2. Canadian Council on Animal Care

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council

Public Health Service Policy and Government Principles Regarding the Care and Use of Animals (1996) Office for Protection from Research Risks

The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques Special Edition (1992) Russell WMS and Burch RL. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare

The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (1998) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council

Swiss Federal Act on Animal Protection.  Revision des Tierschutzgesetzes. Federal Veterinary Office

Deutsches Tierschutzgesetz Gesellschaft Gesundheit und Forschung


Useful Websites*

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Alternatives to Animal Testing: Refinement, Reduction, Replacement (Altweb)

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)

The Association of Sanctuaries (TAOS)

Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC)

Center for Animal Alternatives, University of California (UCCAA)

Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage in Zambia

European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)

Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)

Humane Society of the United States, Animals in Research (HSUS)

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR)

International Directory of Primatology (IDP)

Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction
of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

NORINA (A Norwegian Inventory of Alternatives) database

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)

Society for Animal Protective Legislation (SAPL)

Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW)

Utrecht Department of Laboratory Animal Science


* inclusion here is not an endorsement; those listed are not necessarily in accordance with AWI aims and policies.


Online Abstracts/Articles

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Medline/PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, provides access to over 11 million MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.

Textbase, an attempt to collect information on current textbooks within the field of laboratory animal science and to provide a searchable database of this information free of charge on the Internet.

Useful Journals with online abstracts/articles

Aggressive Behavior

American Journal of Primatology

Animal Behaviour

Animal Science

Animal Welfare

Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Animal Technology and Welfare

ATLA [Alternatives to Laboratory Animals]

AWIC Bulletin

Behavioural Processes

Canadian Journal of Animal Science 

Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science [Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science]

Ethology

Federal Register

Folia Primatologica

Hormones and Behavior

ILAR [Institute for Laboratory Animal Research] Journal

International Zoo News

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science

Journal of Endocrinology

Journal of Medical Primatology

Lab Animal

Laboratory Animals

Laboratory Primate Newsletter

Nature

New Scientist

New Zealand Vet Journal (NZVJ)

Physiology and Behavior

Primate Report

Psychiatric Times

Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science

Shape of Enrichment

Zoo Biology

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(8/31/00)