| Photos 69 & 70: Even though "rhesus monkeys in the laboratory have well-earned reputations for their aggressive response and near-intractable disposition" [Bernstein et al., 1974], positive reinforcement techniques can safely be used to train them for the most common research-related procedure, namely blood collection - from the saphenous vein (photo 69) or from the femoral vein (photo 70) – in the familiar home cage rather than in hallways or in treatment rooms. |
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|Several different investigators have reported of rhesus macaques who have been trained to present a limb for blood collection [Elvidge et al., 1976; Bernstein et al., 1977; Walker et al., 1982; Vertein & Reinhardt, 1989; Reinhardt, 1991d; Phillippi-Falkenstein & Clarke, 1992; Eaton et al., 1994]. Some of the reports include a step-by-step description of the actual training protocol [Vertein & Reinhardt, 1989; Reinhardt, 1991d; Phillippi-Falkenstein & Clarke, 1992]. |
Animals who have been trained to cooperate during blood collection – here two females – do not show behavioral fear reactions and significant changes in hematological parameters [Verlangieri et al., 1985; Reinhardt, 1991c] and stress-sensitive hormones – e.g., cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone, prolactin – that typically occur during the traditional blood collection procedures, where the subject is forcefully restrained or anesthetized [Elvidge et al., 1976; Puri et al., 1981; Eidara et al., 1991; Fuller et al., 1984; Herndon et al., 1984; Reinhardt et al., 1991c; Reinhardt, 1992a]. "Procedures that reduce reliance on forced restraint ... are less stressful for animals and staff, safer for both, and generally more efficient" [NRC, 1998].
"The least distressing method of handling is to train the animal to co-operate in routine procedures. Advantage should be taken of the animal's ability to learn" [Home Office, 1989].
Successful training for blood collection has also been reported for long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis; Hein et al., 1989), stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides; Reinhardt & Cowley, 1992), Celebes macaques (M. nigra; Iliff, 1997), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethips; Wall et al., 1985; Suleman et al., 1988), baboons (Papio anubis; Suleman et al., 1988), mandrills (Mandrillus leucophaeus; Priest, 1991a,b), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; T-W-Fiennes, 1972; McGinnis & Kraemer, 1979; April, 1994; Laule et al., 1996), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; Moore & Suedmeyer, 1997).