Refinement Database

Database on Refinement of Housing, Husbandry, Care, and Use of Animals in Research

This database, created in 2000, is updated every four months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research.

Tips for using the database:

  • This landing page displays all of the publications in the database.
  • Use the drop-down menus to filter these publications by Animal Type, Setting, and/or Topic.
  • Clicking on a parent category (e.g., Rodent) will include publications relating to all the items in that category (e.g., Chinchilla, Gerbil, Guinea Pig, etc.).
  • You may also add a keyword to further narrow your search.
  • Please note that at this time, only publications dated 2010 or later (with some exceptions that include earlier publications) can be filtered by Animal Type and Topic, and only publications dated 2020 or later (with some exceptions that include earlier publications) can be filtered by Setting. Most publications older than 2010 can only be searched by keyword. 

Fueled by the recent and controversial brain-wide association studies in humans, the animal neuroimaging community has also begun questioning whether using larger sample sizes is necessary for ethical and effective scientific progress. In this opinion...

Maintaining healthy and consistent levels of physical activity (PA) is a clinically proven and low-cost means of reducing the onset of several chronic diseases and may provide an excellent strategy for managing mental health and...

The development of realistic dummies for training the distal phalanx amputation (DPA) technique in mouse pups is a promising alternative to reduce and replace animals in training for research and teaching. To test this, we...

We hypothesised that resource choice during early life contributes to both current and longer-term beneficial effects on animal welfare. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal cross-over experiment with laying hen pullets (Gallus gallus domesticus)...

Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is a welfare evaluation tool that uses a holistic approach to capturing an animal’s emotional state. Lists of QBA descriptors validated to assess pig welfare exist, but their definitions are often...

To investigate the possible effect of different feed ration levels on the growth, welfare, and early maturation of juvenile Atlantic salmon, 450 salmon parr with a mean (±standard error) initial weight of 51.6 g (±0.8)...

The past several decades have witnessed significant improvement in the physical welfare of marine mammals in zoos and aquariums. Over that same time period, research has revealed complex cognitive abilities in at least some of...

The use of gabapentin in treating dogs with behavioral disorders is not well described. To characterize behavioral effects of gabapentin, this study surveyed 50 owners whose dogs were prescribed gabapentin at a veterinary behavior-focused practice...

Human evaluation of animal emotional expressivity can inform animal welfare. Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA) has been applied to domesticated and some non-domesticated animals, but its use in primates is limited despite their emotional expressivity. We...

Our study suggests AAV, which more closely resembles the conscious intermittent respiratory pattern phenotype of dolphins, improves ventilation and pulmonary function in the anesthetized dolphin. Future studies should evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of neutral buoyancy...

Sound analysis is an important field of research for improving precision livestock farming systems. If the information carried by livestock sounds is interpreted correctly, it could be used to improve management and welfare assessment in...

We aimed to assess whether object play can be used as a positive emotional state indicator for farmed spotted pacas (Cuniculus paca) by examining its association with other positive welfare markers including affiliative behavior and...

Alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists (α2-agonists) are widely used in animals as sedatives and for pre-anaesthetic medication. Medetomidine has often been given subcutaneously (SC) to rats, although its absorption rate is slow and the individual variation in serum...

IntelliCage for mice is a rodent home-cage equipped with four corner structures harboring symmetrical double panels for operant conditioning at each of the two sides, either by reward (access to water) or by aversion (non-painful...

In conclusion, the handling procedures used in the current study did not influence the life history traits of the black soldier fly. However, further studies are needed to evaluate if different experimental protocols on various...

Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to examine how the scientific community in Europe that is involved with research with animals perceives and experiences the implementation of 3R (Replace, Reduce, Refine). Methods A...

Light enables vision and exerts widespread effects on physiology and behavior, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, hormone synthesis, affective state, and cognitive processes. Appropriate lighting in animal facilities may support welfare and ensure that animals...

Pair housing of pre-weaning dairy calves has previously demonstrated positive impacts on their growth, health and behaviour, but longer-term effects on production are still relatively unknown. This study followed a cohort of 431 Holstein heifers...

Behavioural disorders in dogs are common and have severe welfare consequences for dogs. This study aimed to assess the factors that are significant and predictive of behaviour problems in dogs using the animal welfare assessment...

Several types of enrichment can be used to improve animal welfare. This review summarizes the literature on the use of mechanical brushes, tactile udder stimulation, music, and visual stimuli as enrichment methods for dairy cows...

Environmental enrichment is frequently used to improve the captive environment, aiming to enhance the quality of captive animal care. Water-based enrichment can increase exploratory behaviour and tool use, promoting object manipulation, particularly in macaque species...

In the first two experiments an empty tube open at one end was placed in different locations. Male hamsters, tested one at a time, tended to stay close to the tube or in it. During...

Studies have been carried out on the effect of large-volume blood harvesting from horses, but they were performed on nonpregnant horses of various breeds other than Icelandic horses. This study aimed to investigate the effect...

The public has expressed growing concern for the well-being of fishes, including popular pet species such as the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). In captivity, male Bettas behave aggressively, often causing injuries and death if...