Refinement Database

Database on Refinement of Housing, Husbandry, Care, and Use of Animals in Research

This database, created in 2000, is updated every four months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research.

Tips for using the database:

  • This landing page displays all of the publications in the database.
  • Use the drop-down menus to filter these publications by Animal Type, Setting, and/or Topic.
  • Clicking on a parent category (e.g., Rodent) will include publications relating to all the items in that category (e.g., Chinchilla, Gerbil, Guinea Pig, etc.).
  • You may also add a keyword to further narrow your search.
  • Please note that at this time, only publications dated 2010 or later (with some exceptions that include earlier publications) can be filtered by Animal Type and Topic, and only publications dated 2020 or later (with some exceptions that include earlier publications) can be filtered by Setting. Most publications older than 2010 can only be searched by keyword. 

Rats in Environmental Complexity (EC) were compared with litter mates maintained in Impoverished Conditions (IC) for various times. An initial relatively fast onset of the difference between the cerebral weight of the EC and IC...

The effects of environmental enrichment and isolation on cortical weight and learning ability were measured in mice from lines selectively bred for high and low brain weight and from an unselected control line from the...

Survival in the outdoor pens averaged 80-90%, which was the same as for the indoor monkeys. Body weight gain in the outdoor monkeys averaged 62% increase, in comparison to 43% gain in the indoor monkeys...

When rats are gently handled, their core temperature rises as a stress response.

Restraint is recommended because monkeys can inflict severe injuries to veterinarians...during medical examination and treatment..

Excellent overview of the species-typical behavior of wild baboons. At night, the baboons that we observed in Amboseli slept only in trees. In the Serengeti plains, on the other hand, baboons were observed on a...

The M. mulatta, an agile, unpredictable, and often vicious creature with sharp teeth .... deserves the respect of all persons who work with it [p. 44]. ... Personnel must wear heavy protective clothing - particularly...

Pigeons pecked a response disk to gain access to grain rewards while identical grain was freely available ... Similarly, rats pressed a lever for food pellets while free pellets were present. ... The act of...

In general, simians should be handled only after they have been anaesthetized or suitably sedated. On no account should a person attempt to handle a simian alone; 2 persons should always be present, one of...

It was noticed that animals subjected to an illumination of 2000 lux were tame and playful with handling, while those at lower light intensities resisted handling and tried to bite when vaginal smear was taken...

Nest building in golden hamsters was measured by daily removal and weighing of nests built with straw pulled in from a supply outside each cage. Females used increasing amounts of straw as pregnancy advanced. Similar...

Preweaning mortality was increased when the mice were housed on corncob bedding (22%) when compared with pine sawdust bedding (13%).

The introduction of dairy cows to unfamiliar groups typically is accompanied by high agonistic tension and a reduction of productivity.

Mortality rate of malaria-infected mice was related to number of animals per cage, population sizes ranging from 1 to 20. This was independent of age, sex, and number of animals per cage infected. Individually housed...