Refinement Database

Database on Refinement of Housing, Husbandry, Care, and Use of Animals in Research

This database, created in 2000, is updated every four months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research.

Tips for using the database:

  • This landing page displays all of the publications in the database.
  • Use the drop-down menus to filter these publications by Animal Type, Setting, and/or Topic.
  • Clicking on a parent category (e.g., Rodent) will include publications relating to all the items in that category (e.g., Chinchilla, Gerbil, Guinea Pig, etc.).
  • You may also add a keyword to further narrow your search.
  • Please note that at this time, only publications dated 2010 or later (with some exceptions) can be filtered by Animal Type and Topic, and only publications dated 2020 or later (with some exceptions) can be filtered by Setting. Most publications older than 2010 can only be searched by keyword. 

It is hardly an exaggeration to say that a chimpanzee kept in solitude is not a real chimpanzee at all.

Almost all of the primates like companionship, but there is good reason to believe that the gorilla cannot live normally without it. He becomes sulky, despondent, and - like chimpanzees or orang-utans captured when adult...

Chimpanzees readily use tools in most intelligent ways to retrieve food items.

The relative mortality subsequent to thyroparathyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy of rats was much lower (13%) in animals who had been handled compared with animals who had not been handled (79%).

Adult males, on the other hand, must be housed separately, for, if put together, they will fight to the death. As already mentioned, young males of the same litter if never separated from birth may...

New World monkeys represent an important but often poorly understood research resource. The relatively small size and low zoonotic risk of these animals make them appealing as research subjects in a number of areas. However...