Refinement Database

Database on Refinement of Housing, Husbandry, Care, and Use of Animals in Research

This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research.

Links to the full text for publications that appear in open access journals or are published on the AWI website are provided under the abstract.

Tips for using the database:

  • This landing page displays all of the publications in the database.
  • Use the drop-down menus to filter these publications by Animal Type and/or Topic.
  • Clicking on a parent category (e.g., Rodent) will include publications relating to all the items in that category (e.g., Chinchilla, Gerbil, Guinea pig, etc.).
  • You may also add a keyword to further narrow your search.
  • Please note that at this time, only publications dated 2010 or later (with some exceptions) can be filtered by Animal Type and Topic. Most publications older than 2010 can only be searched by keyword. 
At weaning (21 days) 60 male C57BL/6J mice were placed into isolation cages while 60 others were grouped in enriched environments. Fifteen days later half of each group was shifted to the opposite housing condition...
Reaction to novel change was less in birds whose rearing conditions had been made more complex by the presence of a moving object or mirror.
Wet weight of rat cerebral cortex was increased by exposure to an enriched environment [10 or 12 animals in large cage with toys], as compared with standard colony [2 or 3 animals in small cage]...
Photographic demonstration of the traditional enforced injection method. All monkeys are dangerous [p. 207]. ... Monkeys should not be handled in the fully-conscious state [p. 211].
Some patients with trichotillomania ingest whole hairs or parts of hairs [trichophagia], leading in some cases to the development of trichobezoars. Surgical intervention is indicated.
Previously, the animals were netted or were restrained by a collar and chain. ... Both of these widely used system, through conditioning response and association, teach the primate fear. At the sight of a net...
Several lines of evidence are presented which suggest that psychological response to the venipuncture procedure ['forcibly restrained on rubber mattress in order to perform venipuncture'] may be a major determinant of 'baseline' variability in growth...
Excellent overview of the species-typical behavior of wild baboons.
95 mice from 2 inbred strains were exposed to a postweaning enriched environment or to a standard environment. The design allowed assessment of effects due to environment, genotype, and genotype * environment interactions. Environment enrichment...
Single rats show a reduction of fear in a strange environment when another - though anesthetized - rat is present.
Two inbred strains of mice were used in a replication of the Berkeley rat studies on the cerebral effects of differential environmental enrichment. Those raised in a complex environment and given extensive maze training showed...
Given access to an activity wheel, small mammals spend almost all their active time running it. ... If the instantaneous speed and direction of running are recorded every seconds on a moving chart, the activity...
Pregnant mice exhibit a definite preference for a processed sawdust bedding material as opposed to a commercial deodorized cellulose.
Self-biting in adult, caged macaques is an aggressive response directed to the animal's own body when the threatened object cannot be attacked (p. 128).
Single-housed males showed reduced activity and a greater incidence of stereotypical tail manipulation [substitute social response?] and pawing with hind legs than males housed in groups.
A significant increase in agonistic behavior occurred when the distribution of the food was restricted, but the amount of food remained normal. Highly significant increases in the frequency of agonistic behavior occurred with the introduction...
(1) A wild and a caged baboon population were compared on the basis of roughly 300 hr of observation on each population. The effect of different population compositions is discussed.

Share This!