AWI Quarterly

AWI Quarterly Summer 2003 Volume 52 Number 3

 Summer 2003 Volume 52 Number 3

In 1995, USA Today reported that three-year old Jacob Swartz of Quinlan, Texas was mauled by a cougar. His six-year old sister, Erin, also suffered injuries. This was not some random, unpreventable attack in the woods; the cougar was the family pet who escaped while his pen was being cleaned. The cougar was shot and killed. Though big cats, like the cougar on our cover (photographed by Frans Lanting/courtesy of Minden Pictures), may start out as cute and cuddly cubs, they eventually grow into their wild and potentially dangerous natural selves. Increasingly, people are keeping wild animals as pets: lions, tigers, bears, bobcats, reptiles, amphibians, and rodents from across the globe. It is outright dangerous to keep exotic animals as companions; they can hurt their human attendants, escape and harm other domestic and native animals, and carry diseases such as monkeypox that can be transferred to humans. Exotic animals in poor facilities such as roadside zoos can pose similar dangers as their keepers are ill-equipped to care for these animals appropriately.

The WTO threatens a nation's ability to refuse importation of products of animal cruelty, such as banning trade in eggs from hens trapped in battery cages. Compassion Over Killing

Good news! The recently-concluded IWC meeting established a Conservation Committee and rejected attempts to resume commercial whaling. Jim Nahmens/

Become A "Free Trade" Expert in Ten Minutes!

ust in time for the swirl of activity in Cancun, AWI is pleased to announce a new addition to its colorful and informative brochure series—"Free Trade." The leaflet details examples of the wide-ranging negative impacts of free trade agreements on animal protection and conservation legislation across the globe including the European Union's efforts to prevent importation of furs from animals caught in steel jaw leghold traps and the notorious case involving canned tuna fish and American efforts to keep dolphin-deadly tuna out of the American marketplace. This handy brochure explains how trade agreements work (and don't work) and how conflicts arise with hard-won animal protection laws. Send a self-addressed, stamped envelope for your free copy or download it by clicking here.

Stealing from the Solomans

As anarchy reigns in the South Pacific nation of the Solomon Islands, about 200 dolphins were cruelly captured for export to amusement parks in Mexico and possibly Asia. Despite an international outcry by animal protection and conservation organizations, 28 of the dolphins (13 females and 15 males) endured a terrifying day's journey to Parque Nizuc, an aquatic park in the resort city of Cancun, Mexico. The water park boasts an attraction allowing visitors to swim with the dolphins, which one review describes as including the indignity of a "foot push," a phrase describing a "ride on a pair of dolphins who lift you and push you through the water with their snouts."

What is a live dolphin worth? In the Solomons, rumors abound on the price these animals fetched—from $60 to $400 to the individuals who wrenched them from their life at sea. If they survive transport and "training," this investment can suddenly be worth $30,000 to $45,000 to the amusement park industry. Potential customers from Thailand and Taiwan purportedly have visited the holding area in the Solomon Islands, possibly to purchase the remaining animals. Because the sale of dolphins is such a lucrative enterprise, the dealers involved aren't particularly concerned if some of the animals die—which they have. Some of the dolphins reportedly died while in the holding pens awaiting shipment; one, horribly, after being attacked by a crocodile. Mexico's environmental agency confirmed that at least one dolphin already died at Parque Nizuc.

AWI is distressed that the Mexican authorities allowed the import to take place. The Solomon Islands is not a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which governs the global wildlife trade, and it is unclear what evidence was used by the authorities in the Solomon Islands to justify scientifically that this ill-advised capture and trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.

This is a perfect example of the potentially devastating consequences when avaricious wildlife dealers are able to exploit loopholes in the oversight system and profit handsomely at the animals' expense. This wouldn't be possible without the exorbitant fees uneducated tourists are willing to pay to the aquatic parks that enslave the dolphins. Most of those paying to swim with these dolphins are Americans seeking a transcendental experience without a clue that their pursuit of vacation pleasure is financing such suffering.

Please write to the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources in Mexico and respectfully request that he revoke the permits for the dolphins sent to Parque Nizuc and confiscate the animals. Letters should be addressed to:

The Honorable Victor Lichtinger
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Periférico Sur No. 4209, 6° piso
Colonia Jardines en la Montaña
14210, México D.F., México
Fax: 011 52 56 28 06 44

Also contact the relevant authorities in the Solomon Islands and urge the immediate release of the remaining dolphins. Letters should be addressed to:

The Honorable Nelson Kile
Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources
P.O. Box G13
Honiara, Solomon Islands
Fax: 011 677 38730, Email:

AWI Fights for Primates in the Courts

Chico, a 25-year old chimpanzee, spends his days in solitary confinement at a roadside zoo in South Carolina. As a result of his deprivation, he engages in stereotypic rocking, pacing, and head bobbing, indicators that Chico is psychologically ill. Aberrant behaviors such as this would not be seen if he were in a natural environment. Chico is not alone. "It is still common practice in research institutions to keep nonhuman primates singly housed in subminimal sized cages with little to do but engage in stereotypical locomotion or behavioral pathologies resulting from boredom and frustration," said Viktor Reinhardt, AWI's Laboratory Animal Advisor, who was the clinical veterinarian in a primate research facility for more than a decade.

More than 100,000 non-human primates, intelligent, social beings, are confined in zoos, experimental laboratories, and dealer premises across the country. Each of these individuals deserves to be housed in an enriched environment with the opportunity to share it with at least one companion. In 1985 Congress concurred with this perspective and adopted an amendment to the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) mandating "a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological wellbeing of primates." This would include providing the animals with companions, sufficient space to engage in species-typical locomotion, elevated resting structures, foraging devices and manipulanda (toys).

On July 22, the Animal Welfare Institute joined the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) and three individuals in bringing suit against the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for its failure to adequately implement this vital legal mandate. Four years ago, the USDA had developed a detailed, scientifically sound Policy providing comprehensive information on how to promote psychological well-being of primates (see AWI Quarterly, Fall 2002). If finalized, this report would be of practical help to USDA inspectors who must enforce the law and to primate facilities licensed or registered under the AWA. However, USDA has shelved this Policy.
AWI's lawsuit would require USDA to make a final decision regarding its Primate Policy within 30 days. As world-renowned chimpanzee expert and friend of AWI, Jane Goodall, noted, "It is a disgrace that after all these years Congressional intent has been brushed aside at the expense of these magnificent beings."

AWI is grateful for the legal representation provided by Wendy Anderson of ALDF and the law firm of Meyer & Glitzenstein.

Cute, Cuddly, and DEADLY

A lone tiger lies behind rusting metal fencing, amidst used tires and broken cinderblocks. This is supposedly an animal "refuge."
Shirley Minshew/IFAW

The headlines are as frightening as they are surreal: "Pet Tiger Euthanized After Biting Pregnant Woman," "Lion Lurking on Tri-State Streets," "Supersized Snake Slithers Out of Tank in 'Slick' Escape." Unfortunately, the reality behind these media tales is not only horrifying, but true. Wild, exotic, and often dangerous animals increasingly are being kept as personal pets or allowed to interact with the general public, despite the great risks involved in such animal companionship.

No longer are "domestic" dogs, cats, and hamsters—or even parrots and iguanas—enough to satisfy some pet fanciers. Lions, tigers, cougars, bears, monkeys, Gila monsters, boa constrictors, wallabies, and even obscure African rodents inhabit bedrooms and backyards across America. Some humans who live with these animals are remarkably ill-prepared to care for them sufficiently.

Not your average house cat

There are more tigers in captivity in the United States than there are in the wild worldwide. The allure of that cute tiger cub will someday evaporate as the animal's innate, wild behavior surfaces.

Since exotic pets are made available more cheaply (a tiger cub can cost roughly the same as a purebred puppy) and more conveniently (internet sales and local auctions provide a ready supply of wildlife to those eager for such pets) the number of animals imported into the United States is astronomical. According to Marshall Jones of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), between 1992 and 2002, U.S. trade in wildlife and wildlife products increased by 62% and the number of different species in trade grew by 75%. "Overall," Jones declares, "in 2002, over 38,000 live mammals, 365,000 live birds, two million live reptiles, 49 million live amphibians, and 216 million live fish were imported into the United States." In one year, about 267 million individual living creatures (roughly the human population of the United States) were imported into the country.

Where are these animals going? There are more than 2,500 animal exhibitors licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) under the Animal Welfare Act. USDA includes circuses, zoos, roadside menageries, petting zoos, and marine mammal parks in this category. There are some exemptions to the licensing requirement including pet shows, rodeos, and exhibitors showing only "agricultural" animals.

The majestic allure of these animals, coupled with their accessibility, creates a scenario in which members of the general public are no longer content to see these animals in a licensed facility, but want to own them as pets—despite the fact that they likely lack the knowledge, experience, or infrastructure to house and care for these wild animals appropriately. Keeping wild exotics as pets is like sticking your head in a lion's mouth: you never really know when the animal will decide he's had enough and bite.


 A lion languishes in a cage on concrete floors with wire fencing and no psychological stimulation or companionship (top left) Shirley Minshew/IFAW; A caged bear, living in solitude, stares out from his barren cage in someone's backyard (above); This lone baboon in a traveling animal show lives amidst little more than plastic crates and shredded newspaper (left) PETA.

Keeping exotics is bad for everyone

According to the Captive Wild Animal Protection Coalition (CWAPC), it is estimated that 90% of the exotic pets who survive capture and transport are dead within two years in captivity. CWAPC, which tracks incidents involving captive wildlife, presents a grim outlook on the prospect for keeping exotics safely—either as personal pets or in facilities where the public can have direct interaction with them.

A few stories about human injuries and deaths should be enough to steer anyone to an animal shelter for a domestic dog or cat: pet tigers, lions, and bears have mauled their "owners" to death; a petting zoo buffalo killed his caretaker; a leopard in a amusement park killed a woman visitor.

Animals in some exhibition facilities, including substandard zoos and refuges, also face injury and death: tigers and lions have been shot by police after escaping their enclosures, a black bear died at a wildlife park in Illinois after ingesting a ball, and hundreds of animals of all species have been confiscated after being subjected to neglect and cruelty. Other animals escape their captive homes and, luckily, also escape conflict with humans or other animals: lions have escaped from sanctuaries, a polar bear escaped his enclosure at the Denver Zoo, monkeys escaped from a dealer's facility in Miami, 16 baby pythons escaped from an animal wholesaler in Maryland.

Fears are rising in the wake of SARS, West Nile virus, and Monkeypox virus that importation of live exotic wildlife can also have a devastating impact on domestic animal and human health. Dr. Stephen Ostroff of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notes, "More than half of these newly emerging infectious diseases have their origin in animals." This is not new knowledge—just newly-discovered diseases. It has long been recognized, for instance, that salmonella can be transmitted from pet reptiles to humans.

The latest outbreak, monkeypox, is suspected of affecting at least 72 people in six Midwest states according to the CDC (see box on page 10). It should be noted that live wildlife shipments for the pet trade are not the only risk. Mr. Jones of the USFWS observes that wild animal flesh ("bushmeat") is continually imported into the U.S. surreptitiously. One routine inspection at a refrigerated warehouse uncovered rodent bushmeat from Africa in a shipment from Ghana labeled as containing fish for human consumption.

Part of the problem is that while the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (CDC and Food and Drug Administration), the U.S. Department of Interior (USFWS), and the USDA (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Veterinary Services) all play a role, there is no central agency in the U.S. government charged with verifying that animals imported into the U.S. are free of disease.

Leave wildlife in the wild

A number of actions have been taken and proposed to address the panoply of dangers associated with importation and ownership of exotic wildlife. In the short term, CDC has prohibited the transport and sale of prairie dogs, tree squirrels, rope squirrels, dormice, Gambian giant rats, brush-tailed porcupines, and striped mice. This limited ban on live wildlife imports is an important step, but obviously only gets at one part of the potential problem.

Congress has begun to pay serious attention to the issue as well. The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee held a hearing on July 17, 2003, on the importation of exotic species. Senator Wayne Allard (R-CO), a veterinarian by profession, presided over the hearing. Senator Allard highlighted a government report that found that "nearly three out of four emerging diseases reach humans through animals." To his credit, Senator Allard also discussed the "high rate of mortality in exotic species." The Senator continued: "This occurs both during shipment and after the animal is purchased and taken home. Another problem I see is that few people are qualified to properly care for an exotic animal. The animals often end up neglected or cared for in an inappropriate manner. I do not think that this is acceptable. Pets are a huge responsibility and the decision to adopt one should not be taken lightly."

Senator James Jeffords (I-VT) also attended the hearing, and concluded: "…our nation may be more vulnerable from an unintended outbreak transmitted by an exotic species than from a foreign nation....we have a responsibility to act before it is too late."

Senator Jeffords has acted to address at least one component of the overall issue of exotic pet ownership by introducing the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (S. 269). A companion bill has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Congressman Howard "Buck" McKeon (R-CA) (H.R. 1006). The bills would prohibit the import, export, and interstate commercial shipments of certain exotic animals including lions, tigers, leopards, cheetahs, jaguars, and cougars. The House bill, which has been passed by the Subcommittee on Fisheries Conservation, Wildlife and Oceans, also includes a prohibition on trade in lion/tiger hybrids. The legislation is restricted to prohibiting big cats from being owned as pets by private citizens. It does not address the larger impact of other potentially dangerous exotic pets such as bears, primates, reptiles, and other animals, nor does it address the larger issue of disease transmission from certain wildlife. Moreover, though getting exotic big cats out of people's homes is a laudable goal, there are countless roadside zoos and other facilities that are ill-equipped to handle such wildlife and prevent dangerous exotics from escaping or injuring human visitors. Unfortunately, the bill includes an exemption that allows any individual licensed and inspected by USDA to receive or otherwise trade in exotic big cats—USDA licensing is a remarkably easy process that most anyone could attain. While the bill should be much more restrictive, it is a step in the right direction. Twelve states already prohibit private possession of exotic big cats (though a loophole remains as long as these individuals can get licensed by USDA).

Sometimes, animals that are in sub-par facilities are lucky enough to be confiscated, but sanctuaries—even the best of them—are under-funded and lack the room to take on the vast number of animals in need of rescue.

Two USFWS inspectors peel off their disposable Tivex suits to put them in the "burn bag" after inspecting a shipment of 5 live primates at Seattle's airport.USFWS

In one recent high-profile case, John Weinhart is facing criminal charges for child endangerment and cruel treatment of animals at his facility, Tiger Rescue, in Colton, CA. A raid of his premises last April reportedly turned up 90 animal carcasses including 58 dead, frozen tiger cubs. CWAPC Manager Kim Haddad, a veterinarian, visited Tiger Rescue in June. She writes: "It was one of the most hideous things I have ever seen. Many of the tigers have spent their entire lives in cramped, unsafe and filthy enclosures—so small that it would be unfathomable to leave dogs in them for more than a few hours at a time. These animals continue to fight, breed and give birth because there is no safe way to separate them."

Dr. Haddad notes that USDA has contacted her seeking help in placing more then 90 tigers, lions, and leopards in California and Texas. The homes and the finances for their long-term care simply are not available. So the options are poor: send confiscated exotics to sub par facilities that will profit by their residency and provide a potentially dismal level of care, or euthanize them. Although euthanasia is unpalatable, it may be the most humane option in some circumstances. A better solution would be for Congress to not only ban private ownership of exotic big cats (and hopefully other species eventually) but also to create a federal fund that can be drawn from in order to provide for the long-term care of seized exotics. These innocent animals should not have to suffer twice from human greed and shortsightedness. Ultimately, the smartest decision is to leave wildlife in the wild. After all, there's a reason they're called "exotic."


Helping Small-Scale North Carolina Farmers Improve Pigs' Lives

Cicero Dobson and a few of the new
sows he received for the NCATSU program.
Marlene Halverson/AWI

In Fall of 2000, Professor Chuck Talbott of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCATSU) invited Diane Halverson to speak about AWI's humane husbandry standards for pigs at a Carolina Farm Stewardship Association (CFSA) conference. Paul Willis, Iowa pig farmer and manager of Niman Ranch Pork Company, the first company to embrace AWI's standards, also spoke.

When Dr. Talbott first read about Niman Ranch and AWI, he envisioned a program in which small-scale North Carolina pig farmers could be provided with a humane, sustainable alternative to contracting with factory hog operations to raise their hogs. In so doing, they would demonstrate their vital roles in enhancing rural communities, avoid the environmental damage commonly associated with factory hog operations, and give pigs freer lives.

Enough farmers expressed interest at the CFSA conference that Dr. Talbott applied for financial help to North Carolina's Golden LEAF Foundation, which helps tobacco farmers switch to non-tobacco enterprises, and Heifer Project International (HPI), which provides breeding animals to new or limited resource farmers.

Today, there are 28 small-scale North Carolina farmers in or about to enter the NCATSU-Golden LEAF-HPI program. Several farmers who initially received breeding gilts from Paul Willis's Iowa farm through an HPI grant have raised new gilts to pass on to the next group of farmers entering the program (a condition of the HPI grant). Golden LEAF funds pay for fencing, portable shelters for the pastures, and watering and feeding equipment.

Dr. Talbott's assistants (Mike Jones and Eliza Maclean) provide daily technical support for the farmers. All pigs in the program are raised outdoors with plenty of space and varied environments in which to perform their natural behaviors, including wooded areas with welcome shade during the hot North Carolina summer days.

AWI staff conduct site visits to the farms and prescribe changes, where necessary, for the farmers to meet AWI's standards. The meat from the pigs raised by the farmers that meet AWI's standards is sold to Niman Ranch and distributed in the East Coast market for pork from humanely raised hogs.

AWI is grateful to contribute to this effort and improve the lives of pigs while helping small-scale farmers survive by adopting humane, sustainable alternatives to contract hog production.

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